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First Townsend ionization coefficient

The Townsend discharge is a gas ionization process where free electrons, accelerated by a sufficiently strong electric field, give rise to electrical ... more


Tortuosity is a property of curve being tortuous (twisted; having many turns). There have been several attempts to quantify this property. ... more

Glide Ratio

Gliding flight is heavier-than-air flight without the use of thrust; the term volplaning also refers to this mode of flight in animals. It is employed by ... more

Horizontal curve - Sight obstraction distance (S<L)

Horizontal curve – Sight Distance Properties (S<L)

Horizontal Curves are one of the two important transition elements in geometric ... more

Knudsen number (Relationship to Mach and Reynolds numbers in gases)

The Knudsen number (Kn) is a dimensionless number defined as the ratio of the molecular mean free path length to a representative physical length scale. ... more

Pythagorean theorem (right triangle)

In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras’ theorem, is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of ... more

Rayleigh Number

In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number (Ra) for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy driven flow (also known as free convection or ... more

Area between a parabola and a chord

Parabola is a two-dimensional, mirror-symmetrical curve, which is approximately U-shaped. The area enclosed between a parabola and a chord is two-thirds ... more

Miller indices calculator ( planar spacing distance in bcc system)

Miller indices form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices.
In particular, a family of lattice planes is ... more


In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar ... more

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