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Forward osmosis (FO) is an osmotic process that, like reverse osmosis (RO), uses a semi-permeable membrane to effect separation of water from dissolved ... more

Bernoulli’s equation states that for an incompressible, frictionless fluid, the above mentioned sum is constant. If we follow a small volume of fluid along ... more

Wind speed extrapolation

In wind energy studies, two mathematical models or 'laws’ have generally been used to model the vertical profile of ... more

The Euler’s pump and turbine equations are most fundamental equations in the field of turbo-machinery. These equations govern the power, efficiencies and ... more

The gravity of Earth, which is denoted by g, refers to the acceleration that the Earth imparts to objects on or near its surface due to gravity. In SI ... more

Operation of a solar cell can be understood from the equivalent circuit at right. Light, of sufficient energy (greater than the bandgap of the material), ... more

The von Mises yield criterion suggests that the yielding of materials begins when the second deviatoric stress invariant reaches a critical value. For ... more

In chemistry, a reaction quotient: Qr is a function of the activities or concentrations of the chemical species involved in a chemical reaction. In the ... more

A link budget is accounting of all of the gains and losses from the transmitter, through the medium (free space, cable, waveguide, fiber, etc.) to the ... more

A drainage equation is an equation describing the relation between depth and spacing of parallel subsurface drains, depth of the watertable, depth and ... more

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