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Electron's energy

n atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model, depicts the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in ... more

Electron's speed at any radius

The electrons can only orbit stably, without radiating, in certain orbits at a certain discrete set of distances from the nucleus. These orbits are ... more

Worksheet 302

In the wheelbarrow of the following figure the load has a perpendicular lever arm of 7.50 cm, while the hands have a perpendicular lever arm of 1.02 m.(a) What upward force must you exert to support the wheelbarrow and its load if their combined mass is 45.0 kg? (b) What force does the wheelbarrow exert on the ground?

(a) In the case of the wheelbarrow, the output force or load is between the pivot and the input force. The pivot is the wheel’s axle. Here, the output force is greater than the input force. Thus, a wheelbarrow enables you to lift much heavier loads than you could with your body alone. (b) In the case of the shovel, the input force is between the pivot and the load, but the input lever arm is shorter than the output lever arm. The pivot is at the handle held by the right hand. Here, the output force (supporting the shovel’s load) is less than the input force (from the hand nearest the load), because the input is exerted closer to the pivot than is the output.


Here, we use the concept of mechanical advantage.

Force (Newton's second law)
Mechanical Advantage - Law of Lever

An even longer handle would reduce the force needed to lift the load. The MA here is:


Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Ideal gas - isothermal process function of volume

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an ... more

Möbius transformation (Möbius function)

In geometry and complex analysis, a Möbius transformation of the plane is a rational function of one complex variable. A Möbius transformation can be ... more

Charge of mole of ions goes into solution

If a mole of ions goes into solution the charge through the external circuit depends on the number of moles or ions and the “Faraday constant” ... more

Darcy friction factor - Serghides's solution

In fluid dynamics, the Darcy friction factor formulae are equations that allow the calculation of the Darcy friction factor, a dimensionless quantity used ... more

Chebychev–Grübler–Kutzbach criterion

The Chebychev–Grübler–Kutzbach criterion determines the degree of freedom of a kinematic chain, that is, a coupling of rigid bodies by means of mechanical ... more

Noise Factor

Noise figure (NF) and noise factor (F) are measures of degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), caused by components in a ... more

Calibrated airspeed (CAS)

Calibrated airspeed (CAS) is indicated airspeed corrected for instrument and position error.

When flying at sea level ... more

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