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West number

The West number is an empirical parameter used to characterize the performance of Stirling engines and other Stirling systems. A Stirling engine is a heat ... more

Heat transfer coefficient of pipe wall (using inner/outer diameter)

Heat transfer describes the exchange of thermal energy, between physical systems depending on the temperature and pressure, by dissipating heat. The heat ... more

Supersonic/Hypersonic Lift-to-Drag Ratio

In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio, is the amount of lift generated by a wing or vehicle, divided by the drag it creates by moving ... more

Thrust

Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton’s second and third laws. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction, the ... more

Water flux (Forward osmosis application)

Forward osmosis (FO) is an osmotic process that, like reverse osmosis (RO), uses a semi-permeable membrane to effect separation of water from dissolved ... more

K2 for Danish-Kumar Solution

A Bingham plastic is a viscoplastic material that behaves as a rigid body at low stresses but flows as a viscous fluid at high stress. It is named after ... more

K1 for Danish-Kumar Solution

A Bingham plastic is a viscoplastic material that behaves as a rigid body at low stresses but flows as a viscous fluid at high stress. It is named after ... more

Speed of Sound in Fluids (Newton-Laplace equation )

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit of time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium.
Sound travels faster in liquids ... more

Hydraulic gradient

Hydraulic head or piezometric head is a specific measurement of liquid pressure above a geodetic datum. The hydraulic gradient is a vector gradient between ... more

Radiation Pressure by Reflection (using particle model: photons)

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation pressure implies an interaction between ... more

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