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Malus' law in X-ray (relavistic form)

A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that passes light of a specific polarization and blocks waves of other polarizations.
When a perfect ... more

Intensity of unpolarized light (Malus' law)

Light as one type of electromagnetic (EM) wave, is a transverse wave, consisting of varying electric and magnetic fields that oscillate perpendicular to ... more

Fresnel reflection (Reflectivity Rp)

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Fresnel reflection (Reflectivity Rs)

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Polarization angle (Brewster's angle)

The angle of incidence at which light with a particular polarization is perfectly transmitted through a transparent dielectric surface, with no reflection. ... more

Intensity - Mathematical description

In physics, intensity is the power transferred per unit area, where the area is measured on the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the ... more

Photoacoustic Doppler effect

The photoacoustic Doppler effect is one specific kind of Doppler effect, which occurs when an intensity modulated light wave induces a photoacoustic wave ... more

Reflectance for unpolarised incident light

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Rayleigh Scattering - Intensity of Light from molecules

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Rayleigh Scattering - Intensity of Light

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Luminous intensity for monochromatic light

Luminous intensity is a measure of the wavelength-weighted power emitted by a light source in a particular direction per unit solid angle, based on the ... more

Frequency (Doppler effect for a moving black body)

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by ... more

Sound Power Emitted

Sound power or acoustic power is a measure of sound energy per time unit. It is the power of the sound force on a surface of the medium of propagation of ... more

Sersic profile (in terms of the half-light radius, Re)

The Sérsic profile (or Sérsic model or Sérsic’s law) is a mathematical function that describes how the intensity I of a galaxy varies with distance ... more

Reflection coefficient (wave normal incidence)

At the boundary between media of different acoustic impedances, some of the wave energy is reflected and some is transmitted. The greater the difference in ... more

Radiation Pressure by Absorption (using classical electromagnetism: waves)

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation. Radiation pressure implies an interaction between ... more

Sound Intensity in relation to the distance

Sound intensity or acoustic intensity is defined as the sound power per unit area. The usual context is the noise measurement of sound intensity in the air ... more

Temprature of a black body

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by ... more

Absorbance

Absorbance is a quantitative measure expressed as a logarithmic ratio between the radiation falling upon a material and the radiation transmitted through a ... more

Fraunhofer diffraction (Diffraction by a slit of infinite depth)

In optics, the Fraunhofer diffraction equation is used to model the diffraction of waves when the diffraction pattern is viewed at a long distance from the ... more

Rayleigh Scattering Cross-Section

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced /ˈreɪli/ RAY-lee), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic ... more

Inverse-square law

The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of ... more

Signal Attenuation

In physics, attenuation (in some contexts also called extinction) is the gradual loss in intensity of any kind of flux through a medium. For instance, dark ... more

Fraunhofer diffraction (Diffraction by a double slit)

In optics, the Fraunhofer diffraction equation is used to model the diffraction of waves when the diffraction pattern is viewed at a long distance from the ... more

Cross Section (discrete events)

The cross section is an effective area that quantifies the intrinsic likelihood of a scattering event when an incident beam strikes a target object, made ... more

Sound Intensity Level

Sound intensity or acoustic intensity is defined as the sound power per unit area. Sound intensity is not the same physical quantity as sound pressure. ... more

Electric Intensity

Electric field intensity is the strength of an electric field at any point. It is equal to the electric force per unit charge experienced by a test charge ... more

Redshift (based on wavelength)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

Redshift: 1+z (based on frequency)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

Redshift: 1+z (based on wavelength)

In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the ... more

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