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Solar luminosity

is a unit of radiant flux (power emitted in the form of photons) conventionally used by astronomers to measure the luminosity of stars. It is defined in ... more

Energy required for a chemical rocket

Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. Space propulsion or in-space propulsion exclusively deals with ... more

Atomic packing factor

In crystallography, atomic packing factor (APF), packing efficiency or packing fraction is the fraction of volume in a crystal ... more

Hill equation

In biochemistry, the binding of a ligand to a macromolecule is often enhanced if there are already other ligands present on the same macromolecule (this is ... more

Plateau–Rayleigh instability

The Plateau–Rayleigh instability, often just called the Rayleigh instability, explains why and how a falling stream of fluid breaks up into smaller packets ... more

Reflectance for unpolarised incident light

The Fresnel equations (or Fresnel conditions) describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of ... more

Vacuum tube - transconductance

In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or colloquially a tube (North America) or valve (British usage), is a device that controls electric ... more

Mass fraction

In a mixture, the mass fraction is the amount of mass of one substance, divided by the mass of the total mixture. The sum of all the mass fractions is ... more

Raoult's law

Raoult’s law is a law of thermodynamics and states that the partial vapor pressure of each component of an ideal mixture of liquids is equal to the ... more

Shannon–Hartley theorem

In information theory, the Shannon–Hartley theorem tells the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted over a communications channel of a ... more

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