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Wetted perimeter

The wetted perimeter is the perimeter of the cross sectional area that is “wet”. The term wetted perimeter is common in civil engineering, ... more

Cassie's Law

Cassie’s law describes the effective contact angle θc for a liquid on a composite surface. The law explains how simply roughing up a surface ... more

Trail ( for bicycles)

A factor that influences how easy or difficult a bike will be to ride is trail, the distance that the front wheel ground contact point trails behind the ... more

Heat Conduction - Energy

Heat conduction (or thermal conduction) is the transfer of internal energy by microscopic diffusion and collisions of particles or quasi-particles within a ... more

Pressure

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the ratio of force to the area over which that force is distributed.

Pressure is force per unit area applied in a ... more

Worksheet 316

Calculate the change in length of the upper leg bone (the femur) when a 70.0 kg man supports 62.0 kg of his mass on it, assuming the bone to be equivalent to a uniform rod that is 45.0 cm long and 2.00 cm in radius.

Strategy

The force is equal to the weight supported:

Force (Newton's second law)

and the cross-sectional area of the upper leg bone(femur) is:

Disk area

To find the change in length we use the Young’s modulus formula. The Young’s modulus reference value for a bone under compression is known to be 9×109 N/m2. Now,all quantities except ΔL are known. Thus:

Young's Modulus

Discussion

This small change in length seems reasonable, consistent with our experience that bones are rigid. In fact, even the rather large forces encountered during strenuous physical activity do not compress or bend bones by large amounts. Although bone is rigid compared with fat or muscle, several of the substances listed in Table 5.3(see reference below) have larger values of Young’s modulus Y . In other words, they are more rigid.

Reference:
This worksheet is a modified version of Example 5.4 page 188 found in :
OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics

Critical buckling stress of a column

Column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above ... more

Compartmental SIR model in epidemiology (basic reproduction number)

In order to model the progress of an epidemic in a large population, the population diversity must be reduced to a few key characteristics which are ... more

Spring constant

Hooke’s law is a principle of physics that states that the force F needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance X is proportional to that ... more

maximum axial tension - clamp band

In the aerospace industry, the empirical methodology for evaluating the axial load capability of the clamp band joint assumes the joint components to be ... more

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