Shear stress,is defined as the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section. The average shear stress is force per unit area. Beam shear is
Torque, moment, or moment of force is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis, fulcrum, or pivot.
Moment of inertia is the mass
The volume of the voids of a soil over the total volume of the sample defines the porosity of a soil. Used in geology, hydrogeology, soil science, and