Terminal velocity (under buoyancy force)


The terminal velocity of a falling object is the velocity of the object when the sum of the drag force and buoyancy equals the downward force of gravity acting on the object. Since the net force on the object is zero, the object has zero acceleration.
In fluid dynamics, an object is moving at its terminal velocity if its speed is constant due to the restraining force exerted by the fluid through which it is moving.
When the buoyancy effects are taken into account, an object falling through a fluid under its own weight can reach a terminal velocity (settling velocity) if the net force acting on the object becomes zero. When the terminal velocity is reached the weight of the object is exactly balanced by the upward buoyancy force and drag force.

Related formulas


VtTerminal velocity (m/s)
gStandard gravity
dDiameter of the object (m)
CdDrag coefficient (dimensionless)
ρsDensity of the falling object (kg/m3)
ρDensity of the fluid through which the object is falling (kg/m3)