Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) - Load combinations (eq4)


In structural engineering, a structure is a body or combination of pieces of rigid bodies in space to form a fitness system for supporting loads. Structures such as buildings, bridges, aircraft and ships are all examples under steel structure. The effects of loads on structures are determined through structural analysis. Steel structure is steel construction material, a profile, formed with a specific shape or cross section and certain standards of chemical composition and mechanical properties.

There are currently two common methods of steel design: The first method is the Allowable Strength Design (ASD) method. The second is the Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) method. Both use a strength, or ultimate level design approach.

For LRFD, the required strength, Ru, is determined from factored load combinations, the shown formula is the 4th load combination.

Related formulas


Rurequired strength (N)
Ddead load (N)
Wwind load (N)
Llive load due to occupancy (N)
Lr or S or Rroof live load or snow load or nominal load due to initial rainwater or ice, exclusive of the ponding contribution (N)