Hall voltage (Hall effect)


The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and a magnetic field perpendicular to the current.
The Hall effect is due to the nature of the current in a conductor. Current consists of the movement of many small charge carriers, typically electrons, holes, ions or all three. When a magnetic field is present that is not parallel to the direction of motion of moving charges, these charges experience a force, called the Lorentz force. When a magnetic field with a perpendicular component is applied, their paths between collisions are curved so that moving charges accumulate on one face of the material. This leaves equal and opposite charges exposed on the other face, where there is a scarcity of mobile charges.The separation of charge establishes an electric field that opposes the migration of further charge, so a steady electrical potential is established for as long as the charge is flowing.
For a simple metal where there is only one type of charge carrier (electrons) the Hall voltage is related to the current, the magnetic field, the thickness of the conductor and the charge carrier density.

Related formulas


VHHall voltage (V)
ICurrent across the conductor length (A)
BMagnetic field (T)
nCharge carrier density of the carrier electrons (1/m3)
tThickness of the conductor (m)
eatomic unit of charge