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Graveyard Orbit - Minimum Perigee Altitude

A graveyard orbit, also called a junk orbit or disposal orbit, is a supersynchronous orbit that lies significantly above synchronous orbit, where ... more

Worksheet 316

Calculate the change in length of the upper leg bone (the femur) when a 70.0 kg man supports 62.0 kg of his mass on it, assuming the bone to be equivalent to a uniform rod that is 45.0 cm long and 2.00 cm in radius.


The force is equal to the weight supported:

Force (Newton's second law)

and the cross-sectional area of the upper leg bone(femur) is:

Disk area

To find the change in length we use the Young’s modulus formula. The Young’s modulus reference value for a bone under compression is known to be 9×109 N/m2. Now,all quantities except ΔL are known. Thus:

Young's Modulus


This small change in length seems reasonable, consistent with our experience that bones are rigid. In fact, even the rather large forces encountered during strenuous physical activity do not compress or bend bones by large amounts. Although bone is rigid compared with fat or muscle, several of the substances listed in Table 5.3(see reference below) have larger values of Young’s modulus Y . In other words, they are more rigid.

This worksheet is a modified version of Example 5.4 page 188 found in :
OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Diagonal Resolution - Pixels

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Lateral earth active pressure (Rankine theory)

Lateral earth pressure is the pressure that soil exerts in the horizontal direction. Rankine’s theory, is a stress field solution that predicts ... more

Maximum Pressure on a Contact Area between two cylinders with parallel axes

Contact mechanics is the study of the deformation of solids that touch each other at one or more points. Hertzian contact stress refers to the localized ... more

Density ( temperature dependence)

The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The density of a material varies with temperature ... more

Cryoscopic constant

Freezing-point depression describes the process in which adding a solute to a solvent decreases the freezing point of the solvent. freezing-point ... more

Apsidal precession

In celestial mechanics, apsidal precession is the precession (gradual rotation) of the line connecting the apsides (line of apsides) of an astronomical ... more

Crystal Structures of Metals (Face-Centered Cubic)

Metals are crystallized in four crystal structures: simple cubic (sc); body-centered cubic (bcc); face-centered cubic (fcc) or cubic-close-packing (ccp); ... more

Nose cone ogive shape (radius y at any point x)

Nose cone section of any vehicle or body meant to travel through a compressible fluid medium (such as a rocket or aircraft, missile or bullet) has several ... more

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