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Force aplied at a contact area between a sphere and an elastic half-space

Contact mechanics is the study of the deformation of solids that touch each other at one or more points. Hertzian contact stress refers to the localized ... more

Radius of the turn of leaning bike (for small steering angles)

This lean of the bike decreases the actual radius of the turn proportionally to the cosine of the lean angle. The resulting radius can be approximated ... more

Radius of the turn of an upright bike (for small steering angles)

In order for a bike to turn, that is, change its direction of forward travel, the front wheel must aim approximately in the desired direction, as with any ... more

Hydraulic diameter

For flow in a pipe or a sphere moving in a fluid the internal diameter is generally used today. Other shapes such as rectangular pipes or non-spherical ... more


In solid mechanics, torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque. It is expressed in newton metres (N·m) or foot-pound force (ft·lbf). In ... more

Poiseuille law for resistance

As fluid flows through tubes there is resistance, between the fluid and the wall that opposes the flow. The resistance to laminar flow of an incompressible ... more

Radius of gyration

Gyration is a rotation in a discrete subgroup of symmetries of the Euclidean plane such that the subgroup does not also contain a reflection symmetry whose ... more

Slenderness ratio

Column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above ... more

Torsion constant (Circle -cross-sectional shape)

In solid mechanics, torsion is the twisting of an object due to an applied torque. The torsion constant is a geometrical property of a bar’s ... more

Area of a Torus

In geometry, a torus (pl. tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the ... more

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