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Mean Orbital Speed

The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around ... more

Fracture of ductile materials (Dissipated energy)

In ductile materials, a plastic zone develops at the tip of the crack. The plastic loading and unloading cycle near the crack tip leads to the dissipation ... more

Fall Impact Force

In lead climbing using a dynamic rope, the fall factor (f) is the ratio of the height (h) a climber falls before the climber’s rope begins to stretch ... more

Internal energy isobaric process

An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant: ΔP = 0. The heat transferred to the system does work, but also changes ... more

Kardashev's civilization rating

The Kardashev’s civilization rating is sugested by Carl Sagan from Kardashev scale.

The Kardashev scale is a method of measuring a ... more

Energy of a Photon

A photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic ... more

Effective Radius of a Contact Area between two spheres

Contact mechanics is the study of the deformation of solids that touch each other at one or more points. Hertzian contact stress refers to the localized ... more

Reduced mass

In physics, the reduced mass is the “effective” inertial mass appearing in the two-body problem of Newtonian mechanics. It is a quantity which ... more

Gay-Lussac's Law (Pressure-temperature law)

The pressure of a gas of fixed mass and fixed volume is directly proportional to the gas’ absolute temperature. If a gas’s temperature ... more

Solar Cell Efficiency

Solar cell efficiency is the ratio of the electrical output of a solar cell to the incident energy in the form of sunlight. The energy conversion ... more

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