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Speed of light in matter

The speed of light in vacuum is the speed at which all massless particles and changes of the associated fields (including electromagnetic radiation such as ... more

Reynolds number

In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless quantity that is used to help predict similar flow patterns in different fluid flow ... more

Reynolds number (for a flow in a tube)

In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number is used to help predict if flow will be laminar or turbulent. We know that flow in a very smooth tube, streamlined ... more

Drift velocity in a current-carrying metallic ohmic conductor

The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains due to an electric field.

In terms of the basic ... more

Reynolds number (for a magnetic field)

The magnetic Reynolds number is the magnetic analogue of the Reynolds number, a fundamental dimensionless group that occurs in magnetohydrodynamics. It ... more

Refractive Index ( absolute index of refraction )

The refractive index or index of refraction of a substance is a dimensionless number that describes how light, or any other radiation, propagates through ... more

Water hammer (wave speed)

Water hammer (or, more generally, fluid hammer) is a pressure surge or wave caused when a fluid (usually a liquid but sometimes also a gas) in motion is ... more

Boundary layer thickness (For laminar boundary layers over a flat plate)

The boundary layer thickness is the distance across a boundary layer from the wall to a point where the flow velocity has essentially reached (99%)the ... more

Stokes' law

Stokes’ law is an expression for the frictional force – also called drag force – exerted on spherical objects with very small Reynolds numbers (e.g., ... more

Friction Loss (turbulent flow)

In fluid flow, friction loss (or skin friction) is the loss of pressure or “head” that occurs in pipe or duct flow due to the effect of the fluid’s ... more

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