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Free-fall time (Infall of a spherically-symmetric distribution of mass)

The free-fall time is the characteristic time that would take a body to collapse under its own gravitational attraction, if no other forces existed to ... more

Thermal energy of an ideal gas

Thermal energy is a term sometimes used to refer to the internal energy present in a system in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium by virtue of its ... more

Mean Orbital Speed

The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around ... more

Gravitational Binding Energy - spherical mass of uniform density

The gravitational binding energy of an object consisting of loose material, held together by gravity alone, is the amount of energy required to pull all of ... more

Worksheet 302

In the wheelbarrow of the following figure the load has a perpendicular lever arm of 7.50 cm, while the hands have a perpendicular lever arm of 1.02 m.(a) What upward force must you exert to support the wheelbarrow and its load if their combined mass is 45.0 kg? (b) What force does the wheelbarrow exert on the ground?

(a) In the case of the wheelbarrow, the output force or load is between the pivot and the input force. The pivot is the wheel’s axle. Here, the output force is greater than the input force. Thus, a wheelbarrow enables you to lift much heavier loads than you could with your body alone. (b) In the case of the shovel, the input force is between the pivot and the load, but the input lever arm is shorter than the output lever arm. The pivot is at the handle held by the right hand. Here, the output force (supporting the shovel’s load) is less than the input force (from the hand nearest the load), because the input is exerted closer to the pivot than is the output.


Here, we use the concept of mechanical advantage.

Force (Newton's second law)
Mechanical Advantage - Law of Lever

An even longer handle would reduce the force needed to lift the load. The MA here is:


Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Specific Impulse by weight - with mass flow rate

Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a measure of the efficiency of rocket and jet engines. By definition, it is the impulse delivered per unit of ... more

Capacitance of a Pair of parallel identical wires

Capacitance is the ability of a body to store an electrical charge. Any object that can be electrically charged exhibits capacitance. The capacitance is a ... more


In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar ... more

Stanton Number

The Stanton number, St, is a dimensionless number that measures the ratio of heat transferred into a fluid to the thermal capacity of fluid. The Stanton ... more

Terrestrial Time

Terrestrial Time (TT) is a modern astronomical time standard defined by the International Astronomical Union, primarily for time-measurements of ... more

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