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Hot Air Balloon Lift

The hot air balloon is the oldest successful human-carrying flight technology. The first hot-air balloon flown in the United States was launched from the ... more

Internal energy isobaric process

An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant: ΔP = 0. The heat transferred to the system does work, but also changes ... more

Heat-affected zone - heat input for arc welding

The cross-section of a welded butt joint, with the darkest gray representing the weld or fusion zone, the medium gray the heat affected zone, and the ... more

Exhaust Gas Velocity

A rocket engine nozzle is a propelling nozzle (usually of the de Laval type) used in a rocket engine to expand and accelerate the combustion gases produced ... more

Exponential Decay (with half-life)

Half-life is the amount of time required for the amount of something to fall to half its initial value. The term is very commonly used in nuclear physics ... more

Richardson's law

Thermionic emission is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier. This occurs because the thermal ... more

Mach Number (subsonic compressible flow)

In fluid mechanics, Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local ... more

Thermal Expansion - Linear

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature through heat transfer. When a substance is heated, ... more

Concentric tube heat exchanger - Required length

Concentric Tube (or Pipe) Heat Exchangers are used in a variety of industries for purposes such as material processing, food preparation, and ... more

Characteristic Length

In physics, a characteristic length is an important dimension that defines the scale of a physical system. Often, such a length is used as an input to a ... more

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