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In materials science fatigue occurs when a material is subjected to repeated loading and unloading. The failure of the material occurs when there are k ... more

Miller indices form a notation system in crystallography for planes in crystal (Bravais) lattices.

In particular, a family of lattice planes is
... more

In optics, the Fraunhofer diffraction equation is used to model the diffraction of waves when the diffraction pattern is viewed at a long distance from the ... more

When a ray of light hits the boundary between two transparent materials, it is divided into a reflected and a refracted ray.The law of refraction states ... more

Number density is an intensive quantity used to describe the degree of concentration of countable objects. Volume number density is the number of specified ... more

Calculates the volume of a sphere. A sphere is a perfectly round geometrical and circular object in three-dimensional space that resembles the shape of a ... more

In optics and especially laser science, the Rayleigh length or Rayleigh range is the distance along the propagation direction of a beam from the waist to ... more

Wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a propagating wave of a given frequency.

Wavelength depends on the medium (for example, vacuum,
... more

A sphere is a perfectly round geometrical and circular object in three-dimensional space that resembles the shape of a completely round ball. A sphere is ... more

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