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Maximum thermal efficiency of an Otto cycle

The constant volume adiabatic flame temperature is the temperature that results from a complete combustion process that occurs without any work, heat ... more

Energy Density of electric and magnetic fields

Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume or mass, though the latter is more accurately termed ... more

Vapor Pressure

Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or ... more

Internal energy isobaric process

An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant: ΔP = 0. The heat transferred to the system does work, but also changes ... more

Volume Fraction of the Fibers (Rule of mixtures)

In materials science, a general rule of mixtures is a weighted mean used to predict various properties of a composite material made up of continuous and ... more

Lateral earth passive pressure (Rankine theory for horizontal backfill)

Lateral earth pressure is the pressure that soil exerts in the horizontal direction. Rankine’s theory, is a stress field solution that predicts active and ... more

Snell's law of refraction ( wavelengths)

When a ray of light hits the boundary between two transparent materials, it is divided into a reflected and a refracted ray.The law of refraction states ... more

True anomaly - elliptic orbits

In celestial mechanics, true anomaly is an angular parameter that defines the position of a body moving along a Keplerian orbit. It is the angle between ... more

Nq bearing capacity factor

Karl von Terzaghi was the first to present a comprehensive theory for the evaluation of the ultimate bearing capacity of rough shallow foundations. This ... more

Block and tackle - efficiency approximation - with friction factor

A block and tackle is a system of two or more pulleys with a rope or cable threaded between them, usually used to lift or pull heavy loads.A more precise ... more

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