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Boltzmann factor in mechanics

In statistical mechanics and mathematics, a Boltzmann distribution (also called Gibbs distribution) is a probability distribution, probability measure, or ... more

Boltzmann factor

In statistical mechanics and mathematics, a Boltzmann distribution (also called Gibbs distribution) is a probability distribution, probability measure, or ... more

Fermi–Dirac distribution

Fermi–Dirac statistics describes a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli ... more

Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics

In statistical mechanics, Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics describes the average distribution of non-interacting material particles over various energy states ... more

Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution (Probability density function)

In physics, particularly statistical mechanics, the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution or Maxwell speed distribution describes particle speeds in idealized ... more

Bose–Einstein statistics ( εi > μ)

In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B–E statistics) is one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting ... more

Boltzmann's Entropy Formula

In statistical mechanics, Boltzmann’s equation is a probability equation relating the entropy S of an ideal gas to the quantity W, which is the ... more

Thermal energy of an ideal gas

Thermal energy is a term sometimes used to refer to the internal energy present in a system in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium by virtue of its ... more

Little's Law

In queueing theory, a discipline within the mathematical theory of probability, Little’s result, theorem, lemma, law, or formula is a theorem by John ... more

Benford's Law

Benford’s Law, also called the First-Digit Law, refers to the frequency distribution of digits in many (but not all) real-life sources of data. In ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - The Auger yield (relative to the transition probability)

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Ideal gas - isothermal process function of volume

An isothermal process is a change of a system, in which the temperature remains constant: ΔT = 0. This typically occurs when a system is in contact with an ... more

Isentropic Relations for an Ideal Gas - difference entropy relative to the volume

In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is adiabatic and in which the work transfers of the system are ... more

Isentropic Relations for an Ideal Gas - difference entropy relative to the pressure

In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is adiabatic and in which the work transfers of the system are ... more

Enthalpy of isobaric process

An isobaric process is a thermodynamic process in which the pressure stays constant: ΔP = 0. The heat transferred to the system does work, but also changes ... more

Gibbs free energy calculator

The Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic potential that measures the “usefulness” or process-initiating work obtainable from a thermodynamic ... more

Speed of Sound in Plasma

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit of time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium.
The speed of sound in a plasma ... more

Richardson's law

Thermionic emission is the thermally induced flow of charge carriers from a surface or over a potential-energy barrier. This occurs because the thermal ... more

Specific Gas Constant - related to the Boltzmann constant

The ideal gas constant, denoted by the symbol R or R) is a physical constant which is featured in many fundamental equations in the physical sciences, ... more

Isentropic Relations for an Ideal Gas - Temperature and Pressure

In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is adiabatic and in which the work transfers of the system are ... more

Isentropic Relations for an Ideal Gas - Temperature and density

In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is adiabatic and in which the work transfers of the system are ... more

Collision Frequency

Collision theory is a theory proposed independently by Max Trautz in 1916 and William Lewis in 1918, that qualitatively explains how chemical reactions ... more

Stefan-Boltzmann law - Power

The Stefan–Boltzmann law, also known as Stefan’s law, describes the power radiated from a black body in terms of its temperature. Specifically, the ... more

Compressed air energy storage (Work for compression)

Compressed air energy storage is a way to store energy generated at one time for use at another time using compressed air. In order to achieve a near ... more

Enthalpy

Enthalpy is a defined thermodynamic potential, that consists of the internal energy of the system (U) plus the product of pressure (p) and volume (V) of ... more

Carnot cycle

Every single thermodynamic system exists in a particular state. When a system is taken through a series of different states and finally returned to its ... more

Isentropic Relations for an Ideal Gas - Pressure and volume

In thermodynamics, an isentropic process is an idealized thermodynamic process that is adiabatic and in which the work transfers of the system are ... more

Auger electron spectroscopy - Energetics of Auger transitions (more rigorous model)

Auger electron spectroscopy is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials ... more

Tunnel Ionization - DC

Tunnel ionization is a process in which electrons in an atom (or a molecule) pass through the potential barrier and escape from the atom (or molecule). In ... more

Hole change in Gibbs free energy

In chemistry, a reaction quotient: Qr is a function of the activities or concentrations of the chemical species involved in a chemical reaction. In the ... more

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