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In superconductors, the London penetration depth (usually denoted as λ or λ_L) characterizes the distance to which a magnetic field penetrates into a ... more

Drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) refers to forces acting ... more

The coefficient D(T,P) used in the UNESCO equation, speed of sound in sea water), depends on the temperature and the pressure

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The Biot number (Bi) is a dimensionless quantity used in heat transfer calculations. Gives a simple index of the ratio of the heat transfer resistances ... more

Present value of an annuity: An annuity is a series of equal payments or receipts that occur at evenly spaced intervals. Leases and rental payments are ... more

Benford’s Law, also called the First-Digit Law, refers to the frequency distribution of digits in many (but not all) real-life sources of data. In ... more

For periodic compounding, the exact doubling time for an interest rate of r per period is a logarithmic formula, that can be used if we want to know the ... more

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the ... more

In fluid dynamics, the Darcy friction factor formulae are equations that allow the calculation of the Darcy friction factor, a dimensionless quantity used ... more

In optics, the f-number (sometimes called focal ratio, f-ratio, f-stop, or relative aperture) of an optical system is the ratio of the lens’s focal ... more

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