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Cylinder stress (hoop stress)

In mechanics, a cylinder stress is a stress distribution with rotational symmetry; that is, which remains unchanged if the stressed object is rotated about ... more

Generalised logistic function (Richards' curve)

A logistic function or logistic curve is a common “S” shape (sigmoid curve) The generalized logistic curve or function, also known as ... more

Solar Cell - Fill Factor (with maximum power point)

Solar cell efficiency is the ratio of the electrical output of a solar cell to the incident energy in the form of sunlight. The energy conversion ... more


The variance is a parameter that describes, in part, either the actual probability distribution of an observed population of numbers, or the theoretical ... more

Vickers hardness number

The Vickers hardness test was developed in 1921 by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure ... more

Basic reproduction number for a population with an exponential age distribution

Mathematical models can project how infectious diseases progress to show the likely outcome of an epidemic and help inform public health interventions. ... more

Lensmaker's equation

A lens is a transmissive optical device which affects the focusing of a light beam through refraction. A simple lens consists of a single piece of ... more

Characteristic equation of a solar cell - function of output current and voltage

The theory of solar cells explains the process by which light energy in photons is converted into electric current when the photons strike a suitable ... more

Flow coefficient

The flow coefficient of a device is a relative measure of its efficiency at allowing fluid flow. It describes the relationship between the pressure drop ... more

Force between two nearby magnetized surfaces (relative to flux density)

The Gilbert model assumes that the magnetic forces between magnets are due to magnetic charges near the poles. This model produces good approximations that ... more

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