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Stokes-Einstein equation

According to Stokes’ law, a perfect sphere traveling through a viscous liquid feels a drag force proportional to the frictional coefficient. The diffusion ... more

Collision between electron and ion (The mean free path)

Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions. Ionization can ... more

Einstein relation (Electrical mobility equation)

Electrical mobility is the ability of charged particles (such as electrons or protons) to move through a medium in response to an electric field that is ... more

Spectral Exitance (real surface)

The spectral exitance of a real surface around a given frequency or wavelength, according to the Lambert’s cosine law and the Planck’s law, is ... more

Vertical Pressure variation of the Atmosphere of Earth( exponential function of height)

Vertical pressure variation is the variation in pressure as a function of elevation. The vertical variation is especially significant, as it results from ... more

Landauer's Principle

Landauer’s principle is a physical principle pertaining to the lower theoretical limit of energy consumption of computation. It holds that “any ... more

Radiant Exitance (real surface)

In radiometry, radiant exitance is the radiant flux emitted by a surface per unit area, and spectral exitance is the radiant exitance of a surface per unit ... more

Temperature difference - I-nodes model of an Earth spacecraft

Temperature difference – I-nodes model of an Earth spacecraft

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Noise Power

Noise figure (NF) and noise factor (F) are measures of degradation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), caused by components in a ... more

Benford's Law

Benford’s Law, also called the First-Digit Law, refers to the frequency distribution of digits in many (but not all) real-life sources of data. In ... more

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