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Torque, moment, or moment of force is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis, fulcrum, or pivot.

Moment of inertia is the mass
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Torque, moment or moment of force , is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis. The unbalanced torque on a body along axis of rotation ... more

Torque, moment or moment of force, is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis, fulcrum, or pivot. Mathematically, torque is defined as ... more

A knuckle joint is a mechanical joint used to connect two rods which are under a tensile load, when there is a requirement of small amount of flexibility, ... more

Shear stress,is defined as the component of stress coplanar with a material cross section. The average shear stress is force per unit area. Beam shear is ... more

**(a)** The figure shows the forearm of a person holding a book. The biceps exert a force **F _{B}** to support the weight of the forearm and the book. The triceps are assumed to be relaxed.

**(b)**Here, you can view an approximately equivalent mechanical system with the pivot at the elbow joint

Strategy

There are four forces acting on the forearm and its load (the system of interest). The magnitude of the force of the biceps is **F _{B}**, that of the elbow joint is

**F**, that of the weights of the forearm is

_{E}**w**, and its load is

_{a}**w**. Two of these are unknown

_{b}**F**, so that the first condition for equilibrium cannot by itself yield

_{B}**F**. But if we use the second condition and choose the pivot to be at the elbow, then the torque due to

_{B}**F**is zero, and the only unknown becomes

_{E}**F**.

_{B}Solution

The torques created by the weights are clockwise relative to the pivot, while the torque created by the biceps is counterclockwise; thus, the second condition for equilibrium (net **τ = 0**) becomes

Note that **sin θ = 1** for all forces, since **θ = 90º** for all forces. This equation can easily be solved for **F _{B}** in terms of known quantities,yielding. Entering the known values gives

which yields

Now, the combined weight of the arm and its load is known, so that the ratio of the force exerted by the biceps to the total weight is

Discussion

This means that the biceps muscle is exerting a force **7.38** times the weight supported.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.

http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics

Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body. In an appropriate reference frame it can be defined as a change in the ... more

Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body. In an appropriate reference frame it can be defined as a change in the ... more

Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body. In an appropriate reference frame it can be defined as a change in the ... more

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Calculate the force the biceps muscle must exert to hold the forearm and its load as shown in the figure below, and compare this force with the weight of the forearm plus its load. You may take the data in the figure to be accurate to three significant figures.