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Hydraulic diameter

For flow in a pipe or a sphere moving in a fluid the internal diameter is generally used today. Other shapes such as rectangular pipes or non-spherical ... more

Gauckler–Manning–Strickler formula

The Manning formula is also known as the Gauckler–Manning formula, or Gauckler–Manning–Strickler formula in Europe. In the United States, in practice, it ... more

Force due to water hammer (Slow valve closure)

Water hammer (or, more generally, fluid hammer) is a pressure surge or wave caused when a fluid (usually a liquid but sometimes also a gas) in motion is ... more

Thrust to Power

Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton’s second and third laws.
The power needed to generate thrust and the force of the ... more

Borda–Carnot equation (for open channel flows)

In fluid dynamics the Borda–Carnot equation is an empirical description of the mechanical energy losses of the fluid due to a (sudden) flow expansion. The ... more

Darcy's law

Describes the flow of a fluid through a porous medium, for slow, viscous flow. The total discharge, is equal to the product of the intrinsic permeability ... more

Hydraulic conductivity (Falling-head method)

Hydraulic conductivity is a property of vascular plants, soils and rocks, that describes the ease with which a fluid (usually water) can move through pore ... more

Force exerted by stretched or contracted material

In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighbouring particles of a continuous material exert on each ... more

de Laval nozzle - correlation of Area and Velocity

A de Laval nozzle (or convergent-divergent nozzle, CD nozzle or con-di nozzle) is a tube that is pinched in the middle, making a carefully balanced, ... more

Reynolds number - Flow in a pipe with mass flow rate

For flow in a pipe or tube, the Reynolds number is generally defined as presented here.

For shapes such as squares, rectangular or annular ducts ... more

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