Search results

Found 1381 matches
Worksheet 341

The awe‐inspiring Great Pyramid of Cheops was built more than 4500 years ago. Its square base, originally 230 m on a side, covered 13.1 acres, and it was 146 m high (H), with a mass of about 7×10^9 kg. (The pyramid’s dimensions are slightly different today due to quarrying and some sagging). Historians estimate that 20,000 workers spent 20 years to construct it, working 12-hour days, 330 days per year.

a) Calculate the gravitational potential energy stored in the pyramid, given its center of mass is at one-fourth its height.

Potential energy

b) Only a fraction of the workers lifted blocks; most were involved in support services such as building ramps, bringing food and water, and hauling blocks to the site. Calculate the efficiency of the workers who did the lifting, assuming there were 1000 of them and they consumed food energy at the rate of 300 Kcal/hour.

first we calculate the number of hours worked per year.


then we calculate the number of hours worked in the 20 years.


Then we calculate the energy consumed in 20 years knowing the energy consumed per hour and the total hours worked in 20 years.


The efficiency is the resulting potential energy divided by the consumed energy.

Ripple factor

For the root mean square value of the ripple voltage, the calculation is more involved as the shape of the ripple waveform has a bearing on the result. ... more

Graphic mean size

For a particle size distribution, the graphic mean size can be estimated from the percentages of the particles corresponding to the 16%, 50% and 84%

... more

Earth Similarity Index

The Earth Similarity Index, ESI or “easy scale” is a measure of how physically similar a planetary-mass object is to ... more

Worksheet 302

In the wheelbarrow of the following figure the load has a perpendicular lever arm of 7.50 cm, while the hands have a perpendicular lever arm of 1.02 m.(a) What upward force must you exert to support the wheelbarrow and its load if their combined mass is 45.0 kg? (b) What force does the wheelbarrow exert on the ground?

(a) In the case of the wheelbarrow, the output force or load is between the pivot and the input force. The pivot is the wheel’s axle. Here, the output force is greater than the input force. Thus, a wheelbarrow enables you to lift much heavier loads than you could with your body alone. (b) In the case of the shovel, the input force is between the pivot and the load, but the input lever arm is shorter than the output lever arm. The pivot is at the handle held by the right hand. Here, the output force (supporting the shovel’s load) is less than the input force (from the hand nearest the load), because the input is exerted closer to the pivot than is the output.


Here, we use the concept of mechanical advantage.

Force (Newton's second law)
Mechanical Advantage - Law of Lever

An even longer handle would reduce the force needed to lift the load. The MA here is:


Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Beta distribution (mean)

In probability theory and statistics, the beta distribution is a family of continuous probability distributions defined on the interval [0, 1] parametrized ... more

Brinell scale ( using the SI units)

The Brinell scale characterizes the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. It ... more

Mechanical Advantage - Differential Pulley

Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force amplification achieved by using a tool, mechanical device or machine system. Ideally, the device preserves ... more

Central processing unit power consumption

Central processing unit power dissipation or CPU power dissipation is the process in which central processing units (CPUs) ... more

Achromatic doublet (lens power)

An achromatic lens or achromat is a lens that is designed to limit the effects of chromatic and spherical aberration. Achromatic lenses are corrected to ... more

...can't find what you're looking for?

Create a new formula