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Carnot efficiency

The theoretical maximum efficiency of any heat engine depends only on the temperatures it operates between. This efficiency is usually derived using an ... more

Plateau–Rayleigh instability

The Plateau–Rayleigh instability, often just called the Rayleigh instability, explains why and how a falling stream of fluid breaks up into smaller packets ... more

Specific Orbital Energy

In the gravitational two-body problem, the specific orbital energy (or vis-viva energy) of two orbiting bodies is the constant sum of their mutual ... more

Rouse Number

The Rouse number (P or Z) is a non-dimensional number in fluid dynamics which is used to define a concentration profile of suspended sediment and which ... more

Apparent power

The power factor of an AC electrical power system is defined as the ratio of the real power flowing to the load, to the apparent power in the circuit. In a ... more

Darcy's Law for membrane performance application

The selection of synthetic membranes for a targeted separation process is usually based on few requirements. Membranes have to provide enough mass transfer ... more

Margin of safety (measure of requirement verification)

Many government agencies and industries (such as aerospace) require the use of a margin of safety (MoS or M.S.) to describe the ratio of the strength of ... more

Center of mass (for two particles)

The center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero.
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Water flux (Forward osmosis application)

Forward osmosis (FO) is an osmotic process that, like reverse osmosis (RO), uses a semi-permeable membrane to effect separation of water from dissolved ... more

First Townsend ionization coefficient

The Townsend discharge is a gas ionization process where free electrons, accelerated by a sufficiently strong electric field, give rise to electrical ... more

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