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Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e., “empty”) spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the ... more

The resolution R (here measured as a distance, not to be confused with the angular resolution of a previous subsection) depends on the angular aperture ... more

assigns a magnitude number to quantify the energy released by an earthquake. The Richter scale is a base-10 logarithmic scale, which defines magnitude as ... more

Arithmetic mean is the sum of a collection of numbers divided by the number of numbers in the collection. The collection is often a set of results of an ... more

The logit function is the inverse of the sigmoidal “logistic” function or logistic transform used in mathematics, especially in statistics. ... more

Tortuosity is a property of curve being tortuous (twisted; having many turns). There have been several attempts to quantify this property. ... more

The basic principle of the Vickers hardness test, as with all common measures of hardness, is to observe the questioned material’s ability to resist ... more

Bulk density is a property of powders, granules, and other “divided” solids, especially used in reference to mineral components (soil, gravel), chemical ... more

Wind speed extrapolation

In wind energy studies, two mathematical models or 'laws’ have generally been used to model the vertical profile of ... more

The decibel is a logarithmic unit used to express the ratio between two values of a physical quantity. The bel represents a ratio between two power ... more

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