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Spectral Exitance (real surface)

The spectral exitance of a real surface around a given frequency or wavelength, according to the Lambert’s cosine law and the Planck’s law, is ... more


Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil. Infiltration rate in soil science is a measure of the rate at which soil ... more

Radiant Exitance (real surface)

In radiometry, radiant exitance is the radiant flux emitted by a surface per unit area, and spectral exitance is the radiant exitance of a surface per unit ... more

Vertical Wind Profile - Logarithmic Law

Wind speed extrapolation

In wind energy studies, two mathematical models or 'laws’ have generally been used to model the vertical profile of ... more

Static air temperature - from TAS

The true airspeed (TAS; also KTAS, for knots true airspeed) of an aircraft is the speed of the aircraft relative to the airmass ... more

Plateau–Rayleigh instability

The Plateau–Rayleigh instability, often just called the Rayleigh instability, explains why and how a falling stream of fluid breaks up into smaller packets ... more

Newton's second law (variable-mass system)

Variable-mass systems, (like a rocket burning fuel and ejecting spent gases), are not closed and cannot be directly treated by making mass a function of ... more

Equivalent airspeed (in function of impact pressure and static pressure)

Equivalent airspeed (EAS) is the airspeed at sea level in the International Standard Atmosphere at which the dynamic pressure is ... more

Darcy's law (simplified)

Darcy’s law states that the volume of flow of the pore fluid through a porous medium per unit time is proportional to the rate of change of excess ... more

Indicated airspeed (IAS) - incompressible fluid

Indicated airspeed (IAS) is the airspeed read directly from the airspeed indicator (ASI) on an ... more

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