'

Search results

Found 1589 matches
Graveyard Orbit - Minimum Perigee Altitude

A graveyard orbit, also called a junk orbit or disposal orbit, is a supersynchronous orbit that lies significantly above synchronous orbit, where ... more

Impulse (Velocity)

Impulse is the product of a force and the time, for which it acts. The impulse of a force acting for a given time interval is equal to the change in linear ... more

Compound pendulum (momemt of inertia)

A compound pendulum is a body formed from an assembly of particles or continuous shapes that rotates rigidly around a pivot. Its moments of inertia is the ... more

Thrust

Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton’s second and third laws. When a system expels or accelerates mass in one direction, the ... more

Worksheet 306

Calculate the force the biceps muscle must exert to hold the forearm and its load as shown in the figure below, and compare this force with the weight of the forearm plus its load. You may take the data in the figure to be accurate to three significant figures.


(a) The figure shows the forearm of a person holding a book. The biceps exert a force FB to support the weight of the forearm and the book. The triceps are assumed to be relaxed. (b) Here, you can view an approximately equivalent mechanical system with the pivot at the elbow joint

Strategy

There are four forces acting on the forearm and its load (the system of interest). The magnitude of the force of the biceps is FB, that of the elbow joint is FE, that of the weights of the forearm is wa , and its load is wb. Two of these are unknown FB, so that the first condition for equilibrium cannot by itself yield FB . But if we use the second condition and choose the pivot to be at the elbow, then the torque due to FE is zero, and the only unknown becomes FB .

Solution

The torques created by the weights are clockwise relative to the pivot, while the torque created by the biceps is counterclockwise; thus, the second condition for equilibrium (net τ = 0) becomes

Force (Newton's second law)
Torque
Force (Newton's second law)
Torque

Note that sin θ = 1 for all forces, since θ = 90º for all forces. This equation can easily be solved for FB in terms of known quantities,yielding. Entering the known values gives

Mechanical equilibrium - 3=3 Torque example

which yields

Torque
Addition

Now, the combined weight of the arm and its load is known, so that the ratio of the force exerted by the biceps to the total weight is

Division

Discussion

This means that the biceps muscle is exerting a force 7.38 times the weight supported.

Reference : OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.
http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics
Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Compound pendulum ( ordinary frequency )

A compound pendulum is a body formed from an assembly of particles or continuous shapes that rotates rigidly around a pivot. Its moments of inertia is the ... more

Moment of Inertia - Sphere (shell)

In physics and applied mathematics, the mass moment of inertia, usually denoted by I, measures the extent to which an object resists rotational ... more

Critical Damping Coefficient

A harmonic oscillator is a system that, when displaced from its equilibrium position, experiences a restoring force, proportional to the displacement. If a ... more

Ideal rocket equation (Tsiolkovsky rocket equation)

The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, or ideal rocket equation describes the motion of vehicles that follow the basic principle of a rocket: a ... more

Apsis - Periapsis minimum distance

An apsis, plural apsidesis a point of greatest or least distance of a body in an elliptic orbit about a larger body. For a body orbiting the Sun the ... more

...can't find what you're looking for?

Create a new formula