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Airy pattern formed by A Circular Laser Beam

In optics, a Gaussian beam is a beam of electromagnetic radiation whose transverse electric field and intensity (irradiance) distributions are well ... more

Rayleigh length (range)

In optics and especially laser science, the Rayleigh length or Rayleigh range is the distance along the propagation direction of a beam from the waist to ... more

Planck's law ( by wavelength)

Planck’s law describes the electromagnetic radiation emitted from a black body at a certain temperature. Radiance and spectral radiance are measures ... more

Magic square

In recreational mathematics, a magic square is an arrangement of distinct numbers, usually integers, in a square grid, where the numbers in each row, and ... more

Acousto-optic deflector

An acousto-optic deflector spatially controls the optical beam. In the operation of an Acoustic-optic deflector the power driving the acoustic transducer ... more

Malus' law in X-ray (relavistic form)

A polarizer or polariser is an optical filter that passes light of a specific polarization and blocks waves of other polarizations.
When a perfect ... more

Angular resolution (by a microscope)

The resolution R (here measured as a distance, not to be confused with the angular resolution of a previous subsection) depends on the angular aperture ... more

Stress-Optic Law

Photoelasticity is an experimental method to determine the stress distribution in a material.Unlike the analytical methods of stress determination, ... more

Fraunhofer diffraction (Diffraction by a double slit)

In optics, the Fraunhofer diffraction equation is used to model the diffraction of waves when the diffraction pattern is viewed at a long distance from the ... more

Spatial resolution

The angular resolution may be converted into a spatial resolution,by multiplication of the angle (in radians) with the distance to the object. For a ... more

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