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Bolted joints are one of the most common elements in construction and machine design. They consist of fasteners that capture and join other parts, and are ... more

The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress. For liquids, it corresponds to the ... more

In geotechnical engineering, bearing capacity is the capacity of soil to support the loads applied to the ground. The bearing capacity of soil is the ... more

In fluid mechanics, Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local ... more

A cantilever is a beam anchored at only one end. The beam carries the load to the support where it is forced against by a moment and shear stress. A ... more

In fluid mechanics, Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of speed of an object moving through a fluid and the local ... more

Strategy

The force is equal to the weight supported:

and the cross-sectional area of the upper leg bone(femur) is:

To find the change in length we use the Young’s modulus formula. The Young’s modulus reference value for a bone under compression is known to be **9×10 ^{9} N/m^{2}**. Now,all quantities except

**ΔL**are known. Thus:

Discussion

This small change in length seems reasonable, consistent with our experience that bones are rigid. In fact, even the rather large forces encountered during strenuous physical activity do not compress or bend bones by large amounts. Although bone is rigid compared with fat or muscle, several of the substances listed in Table 5.3(*see reference below*) have larger values of Young’s modulus Y . In other words, they are more rigid.

**Reference:**

This worksheet is a modified version of Example 5.4 page 188 found in :

OpenStax College,College Physics. OpenStax College. 21 June 2012.

http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/college-physics

Creative Commons License : http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

The coefficient of restitution (COR) of two colliding objects is typically a positive real number between 0.0 and 1.0 ... more

A cantilever is a beam anchored at only one end. The beam carries the load to the support where it is forced against by a moment and shear stress. A ... more

The dynamic (shear) viscosity of a fluid expresses its resistance to shearing flows, where adjacent layers move parallel to each other with different ... more

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Calculate the change in length of the upper leg bone (the femur) when a

70.0 kgman supports62.0 kgof his mass on it, assuming the bone to be equivalent to a uniform rod that is45.0 cmlong and2.00 cmin radius.