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Thin lens formula

A lens is a transmissive optical device which affects the focusing of a light beam through refraction. A simple lens consists of a single piece of ... more

Airy pattern formed by A Circular Laser Beam

In optics, a Gaussian beam is a beam of electromagnetic radiation whose transverse electric field and intensity (irradiance) distributions are well ... more

Aperture area

Aperture is a “hole” or an opening through which light travels. The aperture of an optical system is the opening that determines the cone angle ... more

Working f-Number

In optics, the f-number (sometimes called focal ratio, f-ratio, f-stop, or relative aperture) of an optical system is the ratio of the lens’s focal ... more

Rayleigh range ( confocal parameter)

In optics and especially laser science, the Rayleigh length or Rayleigh range is the distance along the propagation direction of a beam from the waist to ... more

Fraunhofer diffraction (Diffraction by a slit of infinite depth)

In optics, the Fraunhofer diffraction equation is used to model the diffraction of waves when the diffraction pattern is viewed at a long distance from the ... more

Photometric ( luminous) exposure

In photography, exposure is the amount of light per unit area (the image plane illuminance times the exposure time) reaching a photographic film, as ... more

Radiant exposure (photography)

In photography, exposure is the amount of light per unit area (the image plane illuminance times the exposure time) reaching a photographic film, as ... more

Radius of the rim of a paraboloidal dish

The elliptic paraboloid is shaped like an oval cup and can have a maximum or minimum point. In a suitable coordinate system with three axes x, y, and z, it ... more

Spatial resolution

The angular resolution may be converted into a spatial resolution,by multiplication of the angle (in radians) with the distance to the object. For a ... more

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